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The Flaming Moderate

How Many Americans Said No to War?
A detailed study of 287 demonstrations for peace in the United States on February 15, 2003
By Yvonne Kimmons and Bryan Williams
Less Oil for Life

NEW YORK, NY -- March 14, 2003

On February 15 more than 12 million people all over the world loudly and visibly said no to war in Iraq. A total of between 862,282 and 1,033,839 of these were Americans, accounting for six to nine percent of the demonstrators worldwide.

While the U.S. media focused on the two large protests that occurred in New York and San Francisco, between 222,282 and 333,839 Americans demonstrated for peace in at least 285 other communities of all sizes in all fifty states.

This study is the product of three weeks of research using national and local news sources and direct local organizer contacts. Following this introduction, you will find:

DATA -- a state-by-state breakdown of all anti-war events in the U.S. known to us, listing where each occurred, a low and high participation estimate, and our sources for the information
METHODOLOGY -- how we interpreted the data
COVERAGE -- how the media told the story

In the course of our research, we discovered a diversity of creative approaches that peace groups used to get their message out. Here are a few demonstrations most Americans probably did not hear about in their local news:

In Maine, Peace Action organized demonstrators in at least twenty-four communities across the state to stand on local bridges, transforming them into "Bridges for Peace". This included demonstrators in Calais who joined Canadians on the bridge connecting the two nations.

In Tucson, Arizona, about 200 protestors broke into small groups and walked or carpooled to gas stations to hold signs reminding consumers of the direct relationship between the nation's foreign policy and their personal dependence on oil.

In Sandpoint, Idaho, the February 15 peace rally marked the beginning of a seven-day, 168-hour continuous peace vigil.

In Atlanta, the International Action Center organized a "Peace Caravan" made up of a large flatbed truck equipped with a sound system, followed by a bus and thirty to fifty vans and cars full of demonstrators. The caravan traveled over forty miles through Atlanta neighborhoods, making stops at six shopping areas with a final rally at the last stop. This strategy spread the message to thousands who would not have seen a stationary event and, according to organizers, elicited honks of approval wherever the caravan traveled.

In Santa Monica, California, a group called Peace on the Beach ended its all-day event by organizing between 5,000 and 6,000 demonstrators into a huge human representation of Picasso's work "The Face of Peace." An aerial photograph of the human artwork can be seen in the Santa Monica Mirror.

Every Midwest and Southeast organizer we spoke to mentioned the weather, either snow, freezing rain, or extreme cold. The blizzard that swept much of the country, dumping two feet of snow in many places, certainly reduced overall turnout, yet events went on as scheduled. An organizer in Portsmouth, Ohio, where snow conditions caused the Governor to declare a state of emergency by Sunday morning, told us, "We expected over 200 people, except in the worst-case scenario -- which is what we had." Even so, 75 to 85 Portsmouth residents braved the blizzard.

DATA

We attempted to document every February 15 peace event in the U.S. Undoubtedly, there were many more. We welcome any information that would make this and future studies more complete (lessoilforlife @ yahoo.com).

Every attempt was made to count each protestor only once. Therefore, while it appears that no protests occurred in Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Jersey, this is not the case at all. The thousands who attended rallies in their hometowns before boarding trains or buses to New York have been counted as part of the New York rally.

Unless otherwise noted, all protests occurred on Saturday, February 15; for various reasons, in eight communities the main peace event of the weekend actually occurred on February 14, 16 or 17. The numbers for these events, which include San Francisco, are included in our data because they were organized in solidarity with the worldwide February 15 demonstrations.

The abbreviation "d.o.c." stands for "direct organizer contact", and signifies an estimate obtained by contact with a local organizer, either by email or telephone. In some cases, particularly in smaller communities, event organizers we communicated with were not associated with named organizations.

News sources listed as active links redirect to available online articles. Other news sources are not currently available online.

Alabama		537 - 773
---------------------------------
Birmingham	400-600 (Birmingham News)
Mobile		117-143 (Mobile Register)
Montgomery	20-30 (WSFA-12TV)

Alaska		1,806 - 2,460
---------------------------------
Anchorage	270-330 (Anchorage Daily News)
Fairbanks	315-385 (Fairbanks Daily News-Miner)
Gustavus	35-45 (d.o.c. Juneau Friends)
Haines		no information available
Juneau		1,000 (d.o.c. Juneau Friends) - 1,500
                (Fairbanks Daily News-Miner)
Sitka		186-200 (d.o.c. Sitkans for Peace & Justice)

Arizona		4,190 - 4,950
---------------------------------
Benson		no information available
Bisbee		300-500 (d.o.c.)
Flagstaff	1,200 (d.o.c. Flagstaff Activist Network)
		-1,400 (The Arizona Republic)
Phoenix		2,500 (Associated Press) - 2,850
		(Infoshop News)
Tucson		190-200 (d.o.c. Tucson Peace Action Coalit.)

Arkansas	750 - 850
---------------------------------
Fayetteville	300 (d.o.c.Ark.Citizens Against War on Iraq)
Fort Smith	no information available
Little Rock	450-550 (Associated Press)

California	272,210 - 350,834
---------------------------------
Calexico	no information available
Carlsbad	540-660
		(d.o.c. S.D. Coalition for Peace & Justice)
Chico		200-800 (Chico Enterprise-Record)
Encinitas	75
		(d.o.c. S.D. Coalition for Peace & Justice)
Encino		no information available
Fresno		1,350-1,650 (Fresno Bee)
La Selva Beach	no information available
Laguna Beach	180-220 (Orange County Register)
Long Beach	1,250-1,500 (Long Beach News)
Los Angeles	30,000-100,000 (Associated Press)
Mt. Shasta	333-350 (MtShastaLive)
Oceanside	225-250
		(d.o.c. S.D. Coalition for Peace & Justice)
Orange		1,800-2,400 (Orange County Register)
Palm Desert	90-110 (Desert Sun)
Palm Springs	143-150 (Desert Sun)
Palmdale	100-120 (L.A. Daily News)
Redding		180-220 (Redding Record Searchlight)
Sacramento	8,000 (San Francisco Chronicle)
San Diego       5,500 (San Diego Union-Tribune) - 7,000
 downtown      (d.o.c. S.D. Coalition for Peace & Justice)
San Diego       600-660
 Naval Stn.	(d.o.c. S.D. Coalition for Peace & Justice)
San Francisco	200,000 (San Francisco Chronicle)
 Occurred on 2/16, due to 2/15 Chinese New Year parade
San Jose	3,500-4,000 (San Francisco Chronicle)
San Luis Obispo	1,769 (d.o.c. Passion for Peace)
 Occurred on 2/16
Santa Barbara	5,000-6,000 (U.C.S.B. Daily Nexus)
Santa Cruz	5,000-7,000 (Santa Cruz Sentinel)
Santa Monica	5,000-6,000 (Santa Monica Mirror)
Sonora		1,000-1,200 (Union Democrat)
Tehachapi	75-100 (d.o.c. Tehachapi Folks For Peace)
Vallejo		300-600 (Vallejo News)

Colorado	4,212 - 4,918
---------------------------------
Boulder		no information available
Breckenridge	11-13 (Summit Daily News)
Colorado Springs 2,700-3,300 (Rocky Mountain News)
Colorado Springs (Peterson AFB)	300 (Rocky Mountain News)
Cortez		80 (d.o.c.)
Durango		500-600 (Durango Herald)
Fort Collins	250 (Antiwar.com)
Frisco		21-25 (Summit Daily News)
Grand Junction	350 (Daily Sentinel)

Connecticut
---------------------------------
 All events that we are aware of in CT preceded travel
 to the NYC event. Demonstrators are counted there.

Delaware	400 - 500
---------------------------------
Newark		400 (Wilmington News Journal) - 500
		(d.o.c. Newark Citizens for Peace & Justice)

District of Columbia
---------------------------------
 We are unaware of any peace events in D.C. on 2/15.

Florida		3,821 - 5,207
---------------------------------
Daytona Beach	198-220 (Embry-Riddle Avion)
Deland		100-120 (d.o.c.)
Jacksonville	150-180 (Florida Times-Union)
Melbourne	400-600 (FloridaToday)
Miami		675-825 (Sun-Sentinel)
Naples		180 (Naples Daily News) - 187
		(d.o.c. Pax Christi Naples)
Orlando		200-800 (Sun-Sentinel)
Pensacola	225-275 (Pensacola News Journal)
Sarasota	450-550 (Sun-Sentinel)
St. Augustine	405-495 (Florida Times-Union)
St. Petersburg	30 (St. Petersburg Times)
Sunrise		158 (Sun-Sentinel) - 180
		(d.o.c. Broward Anti-War Coalition)
Tallahassee	450-500 (Florida State University View)
Weeki Wachee	20-25 (Hernando Today)
West Palm Beach	180-220 (Sun-Sentinel)

Georgia		1,308 - 1,648
---------------------------------
Athens		500 (Athens Banner-Herald)
Atlanta		500 (Atlanta Journal-Constitution) - 800
		(d.o.c. Intl. Action Center, Atlanta)
Atlanta (CNN)	20 (d.o.c. Intl. Action Ctr., Atlanta)
Gainesville	18 (d.o.c.)
Savannah	180-200 (Savannah Morning News)
Valdosta	90-110 (Valdosta State University Spectator)

Hawaii		1,048 - 1,103
---------------------------------
Capt. Cook/Kona	300 (d.o.c. Rally for Peace)
Hilo		248-303 (Honolulu Advertiser)
Pearl Harbor	500 (Honolulu Advertiser)

Idaho		1,740 - 2,000
---------------------------------
Boise		900-1,100 (Idaho Statesman)
Driggs		no information available
Ketchum		200 (d.o.c. Idaho Peace Coalition)
Moscow		440 (Daily Evergreen) - 500
		(d.o.c. Idaho Peace Coalition)
Pocatello	100 (d.o.c. Idaho Peace Coalition)
Sandpoint	100 (d.o.c. Northern Panhandle Green Party)

Illinois	5,943 - 8,203
---------------------------------
Carbondale	200-240 (Southern Illinoisan)
Chicago		5,000 (Chicago Sun-Times) - 7,000
		(d.o.c. Feb.15 Mobilization Coalition)
Galesburg	45-55 (d.o.c.Knox Cty Anti-War Peace Coalit)
Macomb		68-83 (Macomb Eagle)
Normal		100-120 (Bloomington-Normal Pantagraph)
 Occurred 2/14, in order to deliver a petition to city hall.
Peoria		55 (Peoria Journal Star) - 80
		(d.o.c. Peoria Area Peace Network)
Rockford	275 (Rock River Times) - 325
		(d.o.c. Rockford Urban Ministries)
St. Charles	200-300
		(d.o.c. Fox Valley Citizens for Peace)

Indiana		1,870 - 2,070
---------------------------------
Bloomington	500 (Indiana Daily Student)
Fort Wayne	300 (Herald-Times)
Greencastle	50 (d.o.c. DePauw University)
Indianapolis	450 (Indianapolis Star) - 650
		(d.o.c. Indy Iraq Action)
Lafayette	120 (d.o.c. Lafayette Area Peace Coalition)
South Bend	450 (d.o.c. Center for Peace & Nonviolence)

Iowa		990 - 1,110
---------------------------------
Cedar Rapids	30-40 (d.o.c.)
Decorah		50 (d.o.c.)
Des Moines	450 - 500 (KCCI-TV Iowa)
 Occurred on Feb. 16
Dubuque		100 (Telegraph Herald) - 120
		(d.o.c. Dubuque Peace & Justice)
Iowa City	360-400 (KCRG-TV Iowa)
Waterloo	no information available

Kansas		2,194 - 2,640
---------------------------------
Lawrence	1,440 - 1,760 (Topeka Capital-Journal)
Manhattan	167 (Topeka Capital-Journal)
Newton		405-495 (Topeka Capital-Journal)
Pittsburg	72-88 (Joplin Globe)
Topeka		20 (Topeka Capital-Journal)
Wichita		90-110 (KAKE-10 TV)

Kentucky	900 - 1,000
---------------------------------
Louisville	900-1,000 (Associated Press)

Louisiana	720 - 1,220
---------------------------------
New Orleans	700-1,200 (organizer website)
Shreveport	20 (Shreveport Times)

Maine		2,509 - 3,131
---------------------------------
Augusta		72-88 (Kennebec Journal-Morning Sentinel)
Bangor		500 (Portland Press Herald)
Bath		70 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Belfast		10 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Calais		3 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Camden		36-44 (Camden Herald)
Clinton		5-10 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Damariscotta	60-80 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Eastport	17 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Ellsworth	75-80 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Falmouth	15 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Farmington	27-33 (MaineToday)
Gardiner	10 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Kezar Falls	10 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Lewiston	30 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Lincolnville	9-11 (Camden Herald)
Lubec		10 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Portland	1,100-1,650 (Portland Press Herald)
Presque Isle	150 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Rockland	40-50 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Saco		30 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Topsham		10 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Waterville	200 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)
Wiscasset	20 (d.o.c. Maine Peace Action)

Maryland	450 - 550
---------------------------------
Baltimore	450-550 (Baltimore Sun)

Massachusetts	700 - 780
---------------------------------
Hadley		95 (Union-News/Sunday Republican) - 120
		(d.o.c. Hadley Greens)
Hyannis		150 (Cape Cod Times)
Montague Center	75-80 (d.o.c.)
Provincetown	30 (d.o.c. Cape Codders for Peace & Justice)
Vineyard Haven	100 (d.o.c. Martha's Vineyard Peace Council)
Williamstown	250-300 (North Adams Transcript)

Michigan	3,527 - 4,107
---------------------------------
Detroit		1,350-1,650 (Lansing State Journal)
Grand Rapids	no information available
Holland		330 (Holland Sentinel) - 350
		(d.o.c. Strategic Pastoral Action)
Joplin		no information available
Lansing		1,750 (Lansing State Journal) - 2,000
		(Lansing City Pulse)
South Haven	50-60 (d.o.c. Peace Through Action)
Whitehall	47 (d.o.c. White Lake Peace Team)

Minnesota	8,390 - 10,218
---------------------------------
Minneapolis	6,750-8,250 (Grand Forks Herald)
Moorhead	1,500-1,800 (Grand Forks Herald)
St. Cloud	140-168 (Grand Forks Herald)

Mississippi	496 - 693
---------------------------------
Biloxi		45-55 (Clarion-Ledger)
Hattiesburg	45-55 (Hattiesburg American)
Jackson (Ridgewood Court) 11-13 (Clarion-Ledger)
Jackson (Tougaloo College) 135-165 (Clarion-Ledger)
Oxford		150-180 (Clarion-Ledger)
Starkville	110 (Starkville Daily News) - 225 (d.o.c.)

Missouri	5,083 - 6,749
---------------------------------
Cape Girardeau	81-99 (Southeast Missourian)
Columbia	630-770 (Southeast Missourian)
Fayette		60 (d.o.c. Mid-Missouri Peaceworks)
Jefferson City	160-192 (Jefferson City News-Tribune)
Kansas City	2,000-3,000 (Kansas City Star)
 Occurred on Feb. 16.
Rolla		100-120
		(d.o.c. Rolla Area Citizens For Peace)
Springfield	180-220 (KOLR-10 TV)
St. Joseph	72-88 (St. Joseph News-Press)
St. Louis	1,800-2,200 (St. Louis Post-Dispatch)
West Plains	no information available

Montana		4,250 - 6,270
---------------------------------
Billings	100-120 (Billings Gazette)
Helena		150 (Antiwar.com)
Missoula	4,000-6,000 (Missoulian)
 Occurred on Feb. 16.

Nebraska
---------------------------------
Lincoln		no information available
Omaha		2/15 event postponed until 2/17 due to
		blizzard, no further information available
		
Nevada		1,000 - 1,530
---------------------------------
Carson City	no information available
Las Vegas	420 (Las Vegas Mercury) - 900 (d.o.c.
	Coalition to Prevent Erosion of Human Rights)
Minden		400 (Reno Gazette-Journal) - 410 (d.o.c.)
Reno		180-220 (Reno Gazette-Journal)

New Hampshire	570 - 1,000
---------------------------------
Concord		570 (Nashua Telegraph) - 1,000 (d.o.c.)

New Jersey
---------------------------------
 All events that we are aware of in NJ preceded travel to
 NYC event.  Demonstrators are counted there.

New Mexico	4,927 - 8,484
---------------------------------
Farmington	107-130 (d.o.c. San Juan Peace Coalition)
Las Cruces	200-210 (d.o.c. PeaceAware)
Santa Fe	4,500 (Associated Press) - 8,000
		(Santa Fe New Mexican)
Silver City	120-144 (Silver City Sun-News)

New York	440,461 - 500,539
---------------------------------
Canton		350-400 (d.o.c. Alternatives to War)
Croton-on-Hudson no information available
New York	440,000 (New York Times) - 500,000
		(d.o.c. United for Peace & Justice, NY)
North Creek	5 (d.o.c.)
Plattsburgh	20 (Press Republican) - 30 (d.o.c.)
Rhinebeck	50-60 (d.o.c.)
Watertown	36-44 (Watertown Daily News)

North Carolina	9,950 - 12,020
---------------------------------
Asheville	2,000 (Associated Press)
Boone		200-800 (Mountain Times)
Charlotte	500 (Associated Press) - 550
		(Charlotte Observer)
Morehead City	180-220 (Jacksonville Daily News)
Pittsboro	270-300 (d.o.c.)
Raleigh		6,500 (Raleigh News & Observer) - 7,700
		(Charlotte Observer)
Wilmington	300 (Associated Press) - 450 (d.o.c.)

North Dakota	200 - 230
---------------------------------
Bismark		150-180 (Bismarck Tribune)
Fargo		no information available
 May be same as Moorehead MN event
Grand Forks	50 (Antiwar.com)

Ohio		4,394 - 4,964
---------------------------------
Akron		500 (The Beacon Journal)
Beavercreek	no information available
Canton		200 (Canton Repository) - 210 (d.o.c.)
Cincinnati	500 (Canton Repository) - 700
		(d.o.c. Intercommunity Justice & Peace Ctr)
Cleveland	1,200-1,440 (Plain Dealer)
Columbus
 downtown	800 (d.o.c. Central Ohio Peace Action)
 Capital Univ.	50 (d.o.c. Central Ohio Peace Action)
 Clintonville	150 (d.o.c. Central Ohio Peace Action)
 Coshocton	40 (d.o.c. Central Ohio Peace Action)
Dayton		70 (d.o.c.)
Findlay		200-240 (Findlay Courier)
Granville	27-33 (d.o.c.)
Kettering	20 (d.o.c.)
Mansfield	22-26 (Mansfield News Journal)
Mount Vernon	90-100 (d.o.c. Knox County Voices for Peace)
Portsmouth	75 (d.o.c. & Portsmouth Daily Times) - 85
		(d.o.c. Portsmouth Area Peace Coalition)
Shaker Heights	150 (Antiwar.com)
Youngstown	300 (Youngstown Vindicator) - 350 (d.o.c.)

Oklahoma	300
---------------------------------
Tulsa		300 (d.o.c. Tulsa Peace Fellowship)

Oregon		4,800 - 6,400
---------------------------------
Ashland/Medford	500 (d.o.c. Peace House)
Eugene		2,500 (Olympian) - 4,000 (d.o.c.)
Portland	400-500 (Oregonian)
Salem		1,400 (Willamette Week)

Pennsylvania	11,034 - 11,125
---------------------------------
Butler		185 (d.o.c. Pittsburgh Thomas Merton Center)
		- 200 (KYW-TV3)
Erie		150 (Erie Times-News [goerie.com])
Lancaster	300 (d.o.c. Lancaster Peace Coalition)
Meadville	225 (KYW-TV3) - 275 (NEPA News)
Philadelphia	10,000 (NBC News)
Pittsburgh	41 (KYW-TV3) - 50 (NEPA News)
Wilkes-Barre	60-72 (Citizen's Voice)
Williamsport	43 (d.o.c.)
York		30 (York Dispatch/Sunday News) - 35
		(d.o.c. People for Peace York PA)

Rhode Island
---------------------------------
 All events that we are aware of in RI preceded travel to
 NYC event.  Demonstrators are counted there.

South Carolina	430 - 545
---------------------------------
Charleston	180-220 (Charleston Post & Courier)
Columbia	250 (Charlotte Observer) - 325 (d.o.c.)

South Dakota	255 - 275
---------------------------------
Rushmore	100-120 (d.o.c.SD Peace & Justice Coalition)
Sioux Falls	155 (d.o.c.SD Peace & Justice Coalition)

Tennessee	1,795 - 2,125
---------------------------------
Chatanooga	270-300 (Chattanooga Times Free Press)
Knoxville	800 (d.o.c. Knoxville Area Coalition for
		Compassion, Justice & Peace) - 950 (WVLT-TV)
Memphis		225-275 (Commercial Appeal)
Nashville	500-600 (Tennessean)

Texas		18,748 - 21,258
---------------------------------
Amarillo	3 (d.o.c.)
Austin		10,000 (Associated Press)
Corpus Christi	300 (Corpus Christi Caller-Times) - 450
		(d.o.c. Patriots for America)
Dallas		3,500-4,000 (S.M.U. Daily Campus)
Denton	 	180-220 (North Texas Daily)
Fredericksburg	250 (Antiwar.com)
Galveston	no information available
Houston		3,400 (d.o.c. Harris Cty Green Party)
		- 5,000 (Houston Police Department)
McAllen		90-110 (WOAI - San Antonio)
Midland		no information available
San Antonio	1,000-1,200 (San Antonio Express-News)
Temple		25 (d.o.c. Bell Co. Green Party)

Utah		531 - 631
---------------------------------
Logan		75 (d.o.c.)
Moab		6 (d.o.c.)
Salt Lake City	450-550 (Salt Lake Tribune)

Vermont		1,350 - 2,000
---------------------------------
Burlington	350 (d.o.c.) - 500 (WCAX-TV3)
Montpelier	1,000 (Associated Press) - 1,500
		(d.o.c. Burlington Peace & Justice Center)

Virginia	980 - 1,000
---------------------------------
Blacksburg	400 (Roanoke Times)
Charlottesville	no information available
Norfolk		250 (d.o.c.)
Roanoke		90-110 (Roanoke Times)
Williamsburg	240 (d.o.c. Community of Faith for Peace)

Washington	27,074 - 29,247
---------------------------------
Bellevue	200-800 (Antiwar.com)
Bellingham	900-1,100 (Olympian)
Bremerton	150-200 (Olympian)
Colville	130 (d.o.c. Colville Veterans for Peace)
Coupeville	11-13 (Olympian)
Ellensburg	193 (Daily Record) - 226 (d.o.c.)
Leavenworth	no information available
Longview	27-33 (Olympian)
Olympia		2,250-2,750 (Olympian)
Seattle		20,000 (Seattle Post-Intelligencer)
Spokane		1,800-2,200 (Olympian)
Tacoma		900-1,100 (Olympian)
Vancouver	180-220 (Olympian)
Yakima		333 (Yakima Herald-Republic) - 475
		(d.o.c. Yakima Valley Peace Advocates Ntwk)

West Virginia	90 - 110
---------------------------------
Spencer		90-110 (Times Record)

Wisconsin	3,349 - 6,072
---------------------------------
Ashland		300-360 (d.o.c.)
Kenosha		40 (Antiwar.com)
Madison		900-1,100 (The Badger-Herald)
Milwaukee	700-3,000 (Milwaukee Journal Sentinel)
Racine		59-72 (Racine Journal Times)
Richland Center	no information available
Wausau		1,350-1,500 (Wausau Daily Herald)

Wyoming
---------------------------------
Cheyenne	no information available; occurred 2/16

OUR METHODOLOGY

(1) Every attempt was made to count each protestor only once. Therefore, while it appears that no protests occurred in Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Jersey, this is not the case at all. The thousands who attended rallies in their hometowns before boarding trains or buses to New York have been counted as part of the New York rally.

(2) Unless otherwise noted, all protests occurred on February 15. For various reasons, in eight communities the main peace event of the weekend actually occurred on February 14 (Normal IL), February 16 (San Francisco, San Luis Obispo CA, Des Moines, Kansas City MO, Missoula, Cheyenne), or February 17 (Omaha). The numbers for these events, which include the second largest demonstration in the country, are included in our data because they were organized in solidarity with the worldwide February 15 demonstrations.

(3) Low and high estimates for each state were obtained by adding the columns of low and high estimates for all events within the state.

(4) Generally each city name is followed by a low and high estimate as well as the source for each figure.

(5) A single source indicates that the same source provided both the low and high estimates.

(6) "d.o.c." is an abbreviation for "direct organizer contact", and signifies an estimate obtained by contact with a local organizer, either by email or telephone. In some cases, particularly in smaller communities, event organizers we communicated with were not associated with named organizations.

(7) "no information available" indicates that we are sure an event occurred in a given community but have been unable to obtain any size estimates.

(8) In the eight cases where "Antiwar.com" is cited as a source we could obtain no other size estimate. These numbers were posted on Antiwar.com in the days following the events and proved to be quite accurate in all cases when they could be compared with our findings.

(9) The following table, using 1,000 as an example number (X), shows how we interpreted the imprecise numerical phrases journalists often use when reporting about protests. When a source containing one of these expressions represented either the high or low estimate for a given city, we averaged the two extremes of the range.

"several thousand" = low: 4,000; high: 6,000
"hundreds" = low: 200; high: 800 (no reference to "thousands" was made)

For the following expressions we used a low estimate of 90% of X and a high estimate of 110% of X:

"about 1000" = (900; 1,100)
"1000 or so" = (900; 1,100)
"some 1000" = (900; 1,100)
"approximately 1,000" = (900; 1,100)
"estimated 1000" = (900; 1,100)

For the following expressions we used a low estimate of 90% of X and a high estimate of X:

"as many as 1,000" = (900; 1,000)
"nearly 1,000" = (900; 1,000)
"almost 1,000" = (900; 1,000)
"close to 1000" = (900; 1,000)

For the following expression we used a low estimate of X and a high estimate of 110% of X:

"little more than 1,000" = (1,000; 1,100)

For the following expressions we used a low estimate of X and a high estimate of 120% of X:

"1,000-plus" = (1,000; 1,200)
"at least 1,000" = (1,000; 1,200)
"more than 1,000" = (1,000; 1,200)
"over 1,000" = (1,000; 1,200)

(10) Obviously our total high and low estimates for the nation as a whole depend heavily on our interpretation of sources for the two largest demonstrations in the country, those which took place in New York and San Francisco.

In New York, the size of the entire crowd was first estimated by "authorities" at 250,000, according to Reuters stories filed on February 15. Within hours, though, police retreated from that number, refusing to provide a figure for any part of the demonstration except the permitted blocks on First Avenue, which they estimated to be filled to capacity at 100,000. This was a convenient way to make the protest appear considerably smaller, since police used barricades and mounted officers to block the majority of protestors from reaching the permitted area for two hours or more. Therefore, we rejected these police estimates as clearly inaccurate.

Our New York low estimate of 440,000 derives from Robert D. McFadden's first-hand account from his front page article in the February 16, early edition, of the New York Times ("∑given the sea of faces extending for more than a mile up First Avenue and the ancillary crowds that were prevented from joining them, the [organizers'] claim [of more than 400,000] did not appear to be wildly improbable.") Why the endorsement of "more than 400,000" translates to 440,000 is explained in (9) above. In the later edition of the paper, the entire paragraph was rewritten in a manner that significantly reduced McFadden's first-hand estimate. For further discussion, see "The Numbers Game" in Mother Jones, posted Feb. 17.

Our New York high estimate of 500,000, was provided to us by United for Peace and Justice in New York, the main organizers of the rally. While some news sources reported figures atrributed to "organizers" of between 750,000 and one million, we believe these numbers to be inflated.

A more accurate estimate would be possible if law enforcement were to release aerial photos and/or video coverage of the event undoubtedly taken by the numerous surveillance helicopters hovering over the demonstration throughout the day. Due to the same "security concerns" that the city used to justify its refusal to grant a march permit, media helicopters were not permitted to fly over the city on February 15. Therefore, our government is in sole possession of this critical evidence.

Our low and high figures for San Francisco are both 200,000, since this is the current estimate of both police and event organizers. The San Francisco Chronicle has since published an estimate of 65,000 ("Photos show 65,000 at peak of S.F. rally") based on aerial photos of the protest taken at about 1:45 PM. This drastically lower figure has been rejected by both police and organizers, who stand by their estimates.

HOW THE MEDIA TOLD THE STORY

The scope of this story has eluded most of the U.S. news media, who generally focused on the large events in New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.

When they went anywhere for the big picture, journalists seem to have traveled no further than the United for Peace and Justice website, where less than two thirds of U.S. communities planning events (185) had registered them in advance. This was downsized to an estimate of "about 150" American towns and cities, a figure representing only fifty-three percent of the minimum actual number, yet this number was reported as fact on many television stations and in many newspapers.

Even the Associated Press, which employs journalists in every state, failed to assemble accurate numbers of events and participants in the days immediately following the demonstrations and in the three weeks since.

Most stories mentioned the same handful of American cities in passing, often giving no estimates at all. For example, the protest in Sitka, Alaska, was mentioned in news sources around the world, but we found no news story describing the actual event.

The definitive Associated Press story on the U.S. protests, filed on February 16 by Verena Dobnik and reprinted in countless American and international papers, noted the presence of "some 200 war supporters" disrupting the peace event in Wausau, Wisconsin, but gave no estimate of the overall size of the crowd. Only the local paper, the Wausau Daily Herald, ran a story, reporting an event attended by "as many as 1500" anti-war demonstrators.

Residents of Wausau were lucky to read local coverage of their event at all. We found numerous instances in which a city or regional paper printed a wire story describing protests in New York, London, Madrid, Paris, Rome, and Dublin and nowhere informed readers about the protest which had occurred in their own backyard.

We also found that many college newspapers are keeping their readers better informed about local anti-war events than other area newspapers, a fact reflected in the sources listed for our data.

We have discovered that television reporters, upon whom many Americans depend as their sole news source, are considerably more prone to underreport the size of the crowds than their counterparts in the print media. Time and again we threw out online local TV news reports for their drastic undercounts, once we had compared them with numbers provided by print media.

For example, we saw a beaming CNN reporter in Los Angeles on February 15 tell the anchor that she was standing in a crowd of "fifteen thousand," a figure representing half the police estimate and fifteen percent of the organizers' estimate.

Sadly, print journalists are only marginally better. Most seem to think that once they have asked the police and an organizer how many people are present their job is done. We depend on the media to give us facts, yet when faced with an opportunity to give us a number, they act as if the size of a crowd is a matter of political opinion, as if there are "two sides" to the number of people standing in a street.

Can journalists count? Why don't they? Why do they so often use vague terms such as "hundreds" or "several thousand"? When there is a large discrepancy in estimates, why is the police figure virtually always the lower one? Can that be coincidence? Not a single article we came across described the police method of counting crowds, while journalists often described the organizers' counting methods. Do the police have methods?

Two papers deserve mention for telling the anti-war story better than the rest: The Raleigh News & Observer, the paper of North Carolina's capital, for its willingness to estimate a large crowd, and the Olympian, the local paper of Washington's capital, for its presentation of the big picture in the Pacific Northwest.

The police refusal to provide a crowd estimate for the Raleigh march did not deter reporters Anne Saker and Molly Hennesy-Fiske ("Thousands say don't fight Iraq") from describing the counting and averaging method used by organizers, which led to their estimate of 7,000.

The reporters then added their own ballpark estimate to demonstrate the organizers' accuracy: "The march took about 10 minutes to pass a point behind The News & Observer's building on South Salisbury Street, and about 20 people passed that point every two seconds; that would add up to an estimate of 6,000 people."

The Olympian ran a piece titled "Across the Northwest" on the front page of its February 16 edition, which provided crowd estimates and descriptions of peace events in eleven cities of Washington, Oregon and British Columbia. Obviously the story was the product of staff research, since AP filed no such detailed story of the big picture in any region or the country as a whole.

**************

Who we are: Less Oil for Life fully supports all non-violent actions undertaken in the name of peace, but believes that the end of global conflict and the preservation of the Earth's ecosystem for future generations can only be achieved when the inhabitants of the so-called "developed" nations make a personal commitment to a lifestyle of low energy consumption. We call on our fellow Americans, especially, to join us in following these personal steps to promote permanent peace, safety, health and community: (1) buy no new gasoline-powered car ever again; (2) emit less carbon by bicycling, walking, using public transportation or carpooling; (3) buy less in general and locally-made products whenever possible, since less oil has been burned to bring them to you (4) spread the word, by telling family, friends, coworkers, the media, politicians and CEOs that over-consumption is a weapon of mass destruction and you have chosen to unilaterally disarm.

Interested parties are invited to join our discussion group at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/lessoilforlife/ or to contact us at lessoilforlife @ yahoo.com.

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